Please prepare your manuscript before submission, using the following guidelines. Please follow the Specimen-Copy-of-Article of an Article.
Article files should be provided in Microsoft Word format.
Articles should be between 7000 and 10000 words in length. This includes all text including references and appendices. Please allow 280 words for each figure or table.
A title of not more than 20 words should be provided (Times New Roman, 12).
All contributing authors’ names should be added (Times New Roman, 10).
Authors must supply a structured abstract in their submission, set out under 4-7 sub-headings (see our “How to… write an abstract” guide for practical help and guidance):
Maximum is 250 words in total (including keywords and article classification, see below).
Authors should avoid the use of personal pronouns within the structured abstract and body of the paper (e.g. “this paper investigates…” is correct, “I investigate…” is incorrect).
Authors should provide appropriate and short keywords. The maximum number of keywords is 12.
Headings must be concise, with a clear indication of the distinction between the hierarchy of headings. The preferred format is for first level headings to be presented in bold format and subsequent sub-headings to be presented in medium italics.
Notes or Endnotes should be used only if absolutely necessary and must be identified in the text by consecutive numbers, enclosed in square brackets and listed at the end of the article.
All Figures (charts, diagrams, line drawings, web pages/screenshots, and photographic images) should be submitted in electronic form. All Figures should be of high quality, legible and numbered consecutively with arabic numerals. Graphics may be supplied in colour to facilitate their appearance on the online database.
Tables should be typed and included in a separate file to the main body of the article. The position of each table should be clearly labelled in the body text of article with corresponding labels being clearly shown in the separate file. Ensure that any superscripts or asterisks are shown next to the relevant items and have corresponding explanations displayed as footnotes to the table, figure or plate.
References to other publications must be in Harvard style and carefully checked for completeness, accuracy and consistency. This is very important in an electronic environment because it enables your readers to exploit the Reference Linking facility on the database and link back to the works you have cited through CrossRef.
You should cite publications in the text: (Adams, 2006) using the first named author’s name or (Adams and Brown, 2006) citing both names of two, or (Adams et al., 2006), when there are three or more authors. At the end of the paper a reference list in alphabetical order should be supplied:
Surname, Initials (year), Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication.
e.g. Harrow, R. (2005), No Place to Hide, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY.
For book chapters
Surname, Initials (year), “Chapter title”, Editor’s Surname, Initials, Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication, pages.
e.g. Calabrese, F.A. (2005), “The early pathways: theory to practice – a continuum”, in Stankosky, M. (Ed.), Creating the Discipline of Knowledge Management, Elsevier, New York, NY, pp. 15-20.
Surname, Initials (year), “Title of article”, Journal Name, volume issue, pages.
e.g. Capizzi, M.T. and Ferguson, R. (2005), “Loyalty trends for the twenty-first century”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp. 72-80.
For published conference proceedings
Surname, Initials (year of publication), “Title of paper”, in Surname, Initials (Ed.), Title of published proceeding which may include place and date(s) held, Publisher, Place of publication, Page numbers.
e.g. Jakkilinki, R., Georgievski, M. and Sharda, N. (2007), “Connecting destinations with an ontology-based e-tourism planner”, in Information and communication technologies in tourism 2007 proceedings of the international conference in Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2007, Springer-Verlag, Vienna, pp. 12-32.
For unpublished conference proceedings
Surname, Initials (year), “Title of paper”, paper presented at Name of Conference, date of conference, place of conference, available at: URL if freely available on the internet (accessed date).
e.g. Aumueller, D. (2005), “Semantic authoring and retrieval within a wiki”, paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), 29 May-1 June, Heraklion, Crete, available at:
http://dbs.uni-leipzig.de/file/aumueller05wiksar.pdf (accessed 20 February 2007).
For working papers
Surname, Initials (year), “Title of article”, working paper [number if available], Institution or organization, Place of organization, date.
e.g. Moizer, P. (2003), “How published academic research can inform policy decisions: the case of mandatory rotation of audit appointments”, working paper, Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, Leeds, 28 March.
For encyclopedia entries (with no author or editor)
Title of Encyclopedia (year) “Title of entry”, volume, edition, Title of Encyclopedia, Publisher, Place of publication, pages.
e.g. Encyclopaedia Britannica (1926) “Psychology of culture contact”, Vol. 1, 13th ed., Encyclopaedia Britannica, London and New York, NY, pp. 765-71. (For authored entries please refer to book chapter guidelines above)
For newspaper articles (authored)
Surname, Initials (year), “Article title”, Newspaper, date, pages.
e.g. Smith, A. (2008), “Money for old rope”, Daily News, 21 January, pp. 1, 3-4.
For newspaper articles (non-authored)
Newspaper (year), “Article title”, date, pages.
e.g. Daily News (2008), “Small change”, 2 February, p. 7.
For archival or other unpublished sources
Surname, Initials, (year), “Title of document”, Unpublished Manuscript, collection name, inventory record, name of archive, location of archive.
e.g. Litman, S. (1902), “Mechanism & Technique of Commerce”, Unpublished Manuscript, Simon Litman Papers, Record series 9/5/29 Box 3, University of Illinois Archives, Urbana-Champaign, IL.
For electronic sources
If available online, the full URL should be supplied at the end of the reference, as well as a date that the resource was accessed.
e.g. Castle, B. (2005), “Introduction to web services for remote portlets”, available at:
http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/library/ws-wsrp/ (accessed 12 November 2007).
Surname, Initials (year), Title of Data Set, Name of data repository, available at: Persistent URL
e.g. Campbell, A. and Kahn, R.L. (1999), American National Election Study, 1948, ICPSR07218-v3, Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (distributor), Ann Arbor, MI, available at:
A one-time Article Processing Charge (APC) of USD 100 is paid by authors to cover the costs of peer review administration and management and professional article preparation in PDF and other formats, among other publishing tasks.
Discounts and waivers
The International Journal of Business Society (IJO-BS) offer a 25% – 30% waiver for authors from low-income countries to fulfil its commitment to making knowledge more accessible. 70% – 100% waiver may be granted in some cases, which will be examined on a case-by-case basis.